Actinides: The bottom row of the island contains 89 elements, called the actinides. Just two actinides occur naturally on Earth, and these are thorium and uranium. Actinides are radioactive, and scientists combine them with lanthanides to create the inner transition metal group. Transition Metals : The transition metals make up groups three through 12 back in the main body of the periodic table. These metals are shiny, hard, malleable, and they have good conductivity.
Some of the well-known transition metals include platinum, iron, silver, and gold.
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Post-transition Metals: Groups 13 through 17 make up the post-transition metals. Sharing some of the classic characteristics of transition metals, the post-transition metals don't conduct as well, and they are softer. Nonmetals The elements that sit in the upper right area from the staircase are the nonmetals. Halogens: In group 17, the top four elements are the halogen subset of nonmetals.
These elements are chemically reactive, and they often pair with alkali metals to make different kinds of salt.
For example, the salt you might put on your food is made out of sodium an alkali and chlorine a halogen. Noble Gases: Noble gases are group 18, and these gases have no odor or color. Scientists call these gases inert, which means they are almost completely nonreactive. Metalloids Metalloids are the elements that make up the transition between metals and nonmetals.
By Alan Bernau Jr. Stay In Touch. Join Our Mailing List. Except for the elements that border the stair-stepped line, the elements to the right of the line are classified as nonmetals along with hydrogen. Nonmetals have properties opposite those of the metals. The nonmetals are brittle, not malleable or ductile, poor conductors of both heat and electricity, and tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions. Some nonmetals are liquids. These elements are shown in the following figure. The elements that border the stair-stepped line are classified as metalloids.
The metalloids, or semimetals , have properties that are somewhat of a cross between metals and nonmetals. Metalloids tend to be economically important because of their unique conductivity properties they only partially conduct electricity , which make them valuable in the semiconductor and computer chip industry. The metalloids are shown in the following illustration. If the bond is ionic it is called an ionic radius.
The Atomic radius tend to decrease when moving across a period from left to right.
Metalloids | Chemistry for Non-Majors
As we move across a period electrons are added to the same energy level and protons are added to the nucleus; increasing the effective nuclear charge and pulling the electrons closer to the nucleus. The Atomic radius tend to increase when moving down a group from top to bottom. As we go down a group additional energy levels are added; and each subsequent energy level is further from the nucleus. Electronegativity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons.
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It cannot be measured directly and needs to be computed from other atomic properties. The Pauling scale is a dimensionless quantity developed by Linus Pauling used to describe the electronegativity of an atom. The two key factors in determining electronegativity are its atomic number and radius.
Fluorine has the highest electronegativity and francium the lowest. If the electronegativity difference between two atoms is very large, then the bond type tends to be more ionic, if the difference in electronegativity is small then it is a nonpolar covalent bond. The first ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove an electron from a neutral atom in gaseous phase.
In general, the 1st ionzation energy increases as we go across a period; as the electrons are held closer to the nucleus with the increasing effective nuclear charge. In general, the 1st ionization energy decreases as we go down a group; as the electrons are further from the nucleus with each increasing energy level.
The noble gases possess very high ionization energies because their full valence shell makes them highly stable. Metals are usually shiny, malleable, hard and are good conductors of electricity and heat. Metals have low ionization energy and low electronegativity which allows them to conduct electricity as electrons can flow through them easily. Metal characteristics tend to increase when moving from the top-right to bottom-left of the periodic table.
The most nonmetallic elements oxygen, fluorine, chlorine occur at the top right of the Periodic Table. The periodic table can be divided up into several blocks based on their highest energy electron orbital type. There are 4 types of electron orbitals; "s" which can hold 2 electrons and is sperical in shape, "p" which can hold 6 and is shaped like a dumb-bell, "d" which can hold 10 and "f" which can hold For example Helium has an electron configuration of 1s 2 ; the "1" denotes the energy level or shell also known as the principle quantum number "n" the "s" the type of orbital and the "2" denotes the number of electrons.
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The p-block consists of the groups 13 to 18 elements but not Helium. We can also divide the table between main group and transition metals. The main group elements include groups 1 and 2 excluding Hydrogen on the left of the periodic table and groups 13 to 18 on the right of the table.
What are examples of metals, non-metals and metalloids?
The transition metals are the metallic elements that serve as a bridge, or transition, between the two sides of the table. The lanthanides and the actinides at the bottom of the table are sometimes referred to as the inner transition metals. Our e-mail address is: info modelscience.